Livelihoods, Migration and Remittance Flows in Times of Crisis and Conflict: Case Studies for Darfur, Sudan
This paper uses case studies from Darfur, Sudan, to examine the impact of conflict and displacement on labor migration and remittances. It focuses on the role of remittances in the livelihoods of recipients in Darfur.
The paper uses a livelihoods conceptual framework to investigate the impact of conflict on livelihoods in five geographic locations in South, North and West Darfur States. It discusses labor migration as a livelihood strategy, migration patterns and routes and remittance transfer mechanisms and flows. Major factors impacting migration and remittances as a result of conflict include:
- Insecurity, border closures and restrictions on labor mobility;
- Government restrictions on movement of goods from urban to rural areas;
- Government closure of banks in North Darfur;
- Deterioration in communication systems;
- Loss of contact between migrants and their families;
- Loss of sources of income in Darfur that would pay for journeys to various destinations;
- Conscription pressure on men;
- High inflation which reduces economic value of remittances.
The paper concludes by suggesting potential response strategies to support labor migration and remittance transfers.